Organisation et volution du gnome des Angiospermes Ebook

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Language: English
Publication Date: October 2005
Pages: 162
File Size: 1512 Kbytes

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ISBN: 9781599421124   Should I buy this Ebook?   Write a Review


Les relations génomiques dégagées dans ce travail font apparaître que l’ancêtre commun des graminées a subi une transition de la composition en bases qui se traduit par l’augmentation en GC dans tous les consitutants géniques et génomiques. Par opposition, cette transition n’a pas eu lieu dans la plupart des autres Monocots et Dicots. La transition compositionnelle renforce l’évidence de l’existence de deux classes de gènes chez les Angiospermes : les gènes pauvres et riches en GC. Les premiers sont caractérisés par la présence d’introns en plus grand nombre et de plus grande longueur que les derniers. Par ailleurs, les deux classes de gènes chez les graminées ont, sur base de l’étude des substitutions synonymes, des taux d’évolution différents et sont associées à des plans de fonction différents. La composition en bases est un facteur déterminant de la localisation des gènes dans le génome. Chez les graminées, la plupart des gènes sont concentrés dans un intervalle de composition en bases d’environ 2% de GC. Chez Arabidopsis, la composition en GC est plus élevée aux parties distales des chromosomes que dans leurs parties centrales. La composition en GC des gènes et des séquences codantes suit la même tendance. Le génome d’Arabidopsis peut être décomposé en 2 composantes principales, l’une pauvre en GC correspondant à la partie centrale des chromosomes, l’autre riche en GC, et quantitativement plus importante, correspondant aux parties distales des chromosomes. L’expression des gènes associés à la composante riche en GC à été trouvée, en moyenne, supérieure à celle des gènes de l’autre composante. La compilation de nos résultats et de ceux disponibles dans la littérature suggère que le plan de base de l’organisation du génome est similaire chez les graminées. ENGLISH: The work shows, by a detailed analysis of the genomic features of Gramineae, that their common ancestor did the experience of a compositional transition leading to the increase in GC level of all parts of the genome and of the genes. By contrast, this transition did not occur in a number of Dicots and Monocots. With regard to GC level of the genes, the compositional transition stresses the existence of two classes of genes in Angiosperms. The GC-poor genes are characterized by introns higher in average number and size compared to GC-rich genes. Moreover, by analysing synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions, we showed that the evolution rates in the two classes of genes are different and correspond to different functional patterns. The base composition is a determinant of gene location within the Angiosperm genomes. In Gramineae, most genes occur in genomic regions that have a narrow range of GC levels (about 2%). In Arabidopsis, the GC level of contigs is higher, on the average, in the distal regions of chromosomes compared to their central regions. The GC levels of genes and coding sequences follow the same trend. The Arabidopsis genome is made up of two major components. One is GC-poor and corresponds to the central part of the chromosomes, the other, quantitatively higher, is in comparison GC-rich and corresponds to the distal regions of chromosomes. Gene expression is generally higher in this GC-rich component. The sum of our results and those available in the literature suggest that the genome organization of Gramineae is basically similar.


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Organisation et volution du gnome des Angiospermes